The BEAST That Slayed SSL?
September 22, 2011 1 Comment
Well, maybe. As you’ve probably seen all over the Twitters and coverage from The Register, security researchers Juliano Rizzo and Thai Duong may have found a way to exploit a previously known (but thought to be far too impractical) flaw in SSL/TLS, one that would allow an observer to break encryption with relative ease. And they claim to have working code that would automate that process, turning it from the realm of the mathematical researcher or cryptographic developer with a PhD to the realm of script -kiddies.
Are we talking skeleton key here?
They’re not presenting their paper and exploit until on September 23rd, 2011 (tomorrow), so we don’t know the full scale of the issue. So it’s not time to panic. Just yet, at least. When it’s time to panic, I have prepared a Homeland Security-inspired color-coded scale.
There’s some speculation about the attack, but so far here is the best description I’ve found of a likely scenario. Essentially, you become a man in the middle (pretty easy if you’re a rogue government, have a three letter acronym in your agency’s name (NSA, FSB, CIA, etc.), or if you sit at a coffee shop with a rogue access point). You could then start guessing (and testing) a session cookie, one character at time, until you had the full cookie.
Wait, plugging away, one character at a time, until you get the code? Where have I seen this before?
War Games: Prophetic Movie
That’s right, War Games. The WOPR (or Joshua) breaks the nuclear launch codes one character at a time. Let’s hope the Department of Defense doesn’t have a web interface for launching the nukes. (I can see it now, as the President gets ready to hit the button, he’s asked to fill out a short survey.)
If someone gets your session cookie, they can imitate you. They can read your emails, send email as you, transfer money, etc., all without your password. This is all part of the HTTP standard.
Oh, you don’t know HTTP? You should.
With the HTTP protocol, we have the data unit: The HTTP message. And there are two types of HTTP messages, a request and a response. In HTTP, every object on a page requires a request. Every GIF image, CSS style sheet, and every hilariously caption JPEG requires its own request. In HTTP, there is no way to make one request and ask for multiple objects. And don’t forget the HTML page itself, that’s also a separate request and response. One object, one request, one response.
HTTP by itself has no way to tie these requests together. The web server doesn’t know that the JPEG and the GIF that it’s been asked for are even part of the same page, let alone the same user. That’s where the session ID cookie comes in. The session cookie ID is a specific kind of HTTP cookie, and it’s the glue that joins all the request you make together which allows the web site to build a unique relationship with you.
When you log into a website, you’re asked for a username and password (and perhaps a token ID or client certificate if you’re doing two-factor). Once you supply it, you don’t supply it for every object you request. Instead, you’re granted a session cookie. They often have familiar names, like JSESSIONID, ASPSESSIONID, or PHPSESSIONID. But the cookie name could be anything. They’ll typically have some random value, a long string of alphanumeric characters.
With HTTP session ID cookies, the web server knows who’s requests came from who, and can deliver customized responses
Every web site you log into, whether it’s Twitter (auth_token), Facebook (there’s a lot), Gmail (also a lot), your browser is assigned a session ID cookie (or depending on how they do authentication, several session ID cookies). Session ID cookies are the glue that holds it all together.
These values don’t last forever. You know how GMail requires you re-login every 2 weeks? You’re generated new session ID cookies at that point. That keeps an old session ID from working past a certain point.
If someone gets this cookie value, they can pretend to be you. If you work at a company that uses key cards for access into various areas, what happens if someone steals your keycard? They can walk into all the areas you can. Same with getting the session ID cookie.
This attack, the one outlined, is based on getting this cookie. If they get it, they can pretend to be you. For any site they can grab the cookie for.
“Permission granted, comrade. Soon, ze secrets of ze easy bake ofen vill be ours!”
As the caption above illustrates, this is indeed serious.
Since this is fixed in TLS 1.1 or 1.2, which is used exactly nowhere, it’ll be interesting to see how much of our infrastructure we need to replace to remediate this potential hack. It could be as simple as a software update, or we could have to replace every load balancer on the planet (since they do SSL acceleration). That is a frightening prospect, indeed.